Binary/Ternary Acids

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In addition to these general rules, there are two minor extensions of binary compound nomenclature to ternary compounds, which are those compounds containing three or more different elements. Extension to include mixed salts, which contain different electropositive elements, is fairly simple. Suppose you have a compound such as What are binary and ternary acids 2 S, sodium sulfide, in which a potassium replaces a sodium yielding KNaS.

This is called potassium sodium sulfide, potassium being named first because it is more electropositive. The compound NaHS would be sodium hydrogen sulfide for the same reason. Those inorganic compounds containing at least three elements are called ternary compounds. Unfortunately, there is no single system of nomenclature in use for them. These are the oxygen-acid system devised by De Morveau and Lavoisier used for the majority of the common compounds and the system used for coordination compounds.

The first of these will be taken up in the following section, but the latter will be deferred to later in senior chemistry. The basic premises of the systematic IUPAC nomenclature of ternary compounds are similar to the ones for binary compounds. Again, the names of the compounds are made up of the names of the elements of which they are composed. Again, the elements are named in the order most metallic to least metallic.

However, while the name ending for a binary compound is -ide, the name ending for a more complex inorganic ternary, quaternary, etc. The IUPAC method for naming ternary compounds is to take a binary-type name using two elements, alter the ending to -ate to designate it as a non-binary compound, and then specify the number and type of added atoms as a prefix to the name or names of the element s to which they are attached.

The number of atoms is given using the Greek prefixes. A few examples suffice to give this method. The compound NaClO 4 is named sodium tetraoxochlorate VII because the number of oxygens is four, giving tetra oxo; the oxidation state of chlorine should be specified as it is here. Prefixes of other elements used in this way generally end in -o; a few prefixes aqua, H 2 O; hydroxo, OH- give names of simple multi-element groups. This is the system used in naming complex co-ordination structures and as you can see it's cumbersome.

The older oxygen acid method of naming inorganic compounds described in this section is much more commonly used than is the systematic IUPAC method.

It differs from the IUPAC method in that the number of oxygens is not given directly no oxo substituentsand oxidation states are not given. Instead, endings change from -ate, and prefixes are introduced, depending upon the relative numbers of oxygen atoms present.

Virtually all of the common ternary compounds have oxygen as one of their components. Lavoisier believed that all acids, and therefore all salts of acids as well, contained oxygen, and his system of nomenclature was unfortunately based on this erroneous idea.

The other elements in the compound were therefore named what are binary and ternary acids the oxygen was not. Instead, the amount of oxygen present was denoted by changes in the form of the name. Take a polyatomic ion. It's name ends in "ate". Add an oxygen to it and you get ClO 4.

Its name is adjusted to indicate that a new oxygen has been added by putting a prefix "per" on the name.

If we take another oxygen away from ClO 2 - we get ClO - the hypo chlor ite ion. Note that the ions did not change their charge. Only the number of oxygens changed and the name changed to reflect it. If you know one of the "ate" or "ite" or even "per-ate" ions then you can manufacture the other three.

The other three may not exist in nature, but you can still create them on paper for naming purposes. AsO 5 -3 is the per arsen ate ion. It is "per-ate" so you can't add more oxygen.

But you can subtract 3 oxygens one at a time and get three new ions. Try it on your own: Bromate is BrO 3 - Name and write the other three ions based on it. Compounds can be named using these new ions and following the general rules of combining ions. The sodium salts what are binary and ternary acids the what are binary and ternary acids of chlorine are named as given below: The prefix per- means higher oxygen content and the prefix hypo- means lower oxygen content.

The oxygen content as specified is relative, not absolute; thus NaClO 4 with four oxygens is sodium perchlorate while Na 2 SO 4 with four oxygens is sodium sulfate and so Na 2 SO 3 is sodium sulfite.

Unfortunately, chemists rarely use the IUPAC system for the common compounds but retain this older oxygen-acid nomenclature. Since the oxygen-acid nomenclature of ternary compounds does not give the absolute number of oxygens involved, this must be derived from experience. The salts of the halogens fluorine, bromine, and iodine generally follow the pattern of the chlorine salts given earlier. In general, salts of elements follow the same pattern going down a column of the periodic chart - that is, elements of the same group follow the what are binary and ternary acids pattern.

While this is generally true it is not always so; phosphorus, arsenic, what are binary and ternary acids antimony follow the same pattern, but nitrogen does not, and silicon and germanium follow the same pattern, but carbon does not. Manganese and ruthenium do not follow these what are binary and ternary acids. Their negative ions are named as follows: Although the number of oxygens does not rise in going to these "per" compounds the oxidation state of the central transition metal atom does.

The compounds of chromium are unusual in a different way; K 2 CrO 4 is potassium chromate and K 2 CrO 3 is potassium chromite, but K 2 Cr 2 O 7 is called potassium dichromate.

We also name KOCN as potassium cyanate by analogy with the cyanide ion, and K 2 C 2 O 4 is potassium oxalate because it is the potassium salt of the organic acid called oxalic acid.

Acids are compounds that contain hydrogen. Hydrogen acts like a metal because it tends to lose its one lone electron very easily. It is a gas, not a solid like other metals, only because of its very low atomic mass. The binary acids are those that contain hydrogen and one other element only. Name it normally then drop the "ide" ending and add "ic acid" to get the proper name.

The oxyacid compounds, can either be named as hydrogen salts Example: The two systems of names would give, for the oxyacids of chlorine, the following list older oxygen acid method first: If a compound should be named "per-ate" change its name to "per-ic acid"; if what are binary and ternary acids compound just ends in "ate" then the name changes to "ic acid". What are binary and ternary acids pattern follows in the examples below.

Have you noted the essential difference between naming acids and everything else? The only difference between the names is the replacement of hydrogen -ate by -ic acid and the replacement of hydrogen -ite by -ous acid. Since sulfur and oxygen are similar in their chemistry, sulfur can sometimes replace oxygen in a ternary compound. The replacement of one oxygen with one sulfur is denoted by the additional prefix thio.

Multiple replacement, which is rare, is denoted by additional numeric prefixes as dithio or trithio.

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